Browse "Business & Economics"

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Mining

Mining is one of Canada’s primary industries and involves the extraction, refining, and/or processing of economically valuable rocks and minerals.

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Minting

The early years saw the Mint efficiently producing gold Sovereigns, Canadian coins and millions of ounces of refined gold. The Mint even produced gun parts for Britain during World War I.

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Monetary Policy

Monetary policy refers to government measures taken to affect financial markets and credit conditions, for the purpose of influencing the behaviour of the economy. In Canada, monetary policy is the responsibility of the Bank of Canada, a federal crown corporation that implements its decisions through manipulation of the money supply.

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Mortgage

A Mortgageis a legal paper in which borrowers agree to surrender their property to a lender if they do not pay back the money they owe, with INTEREST.

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Musgrave

Musgrave. Toronto music dealer and publisher, located in the Yonge St Arcade. The business was opened in 1909 by the brothers Charles E. and George A. Musgrave; about 1914 it was briefly A.L.E. Davies and Musgrave Brothers; after 1926 it was run as Charles E. Musgrave & Son (Edward C.

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Nortel

Nortel Networks Corporation, or simply Nortel, was a public telecommunications and data networking equipment manufacturer. Founded in 1895 as the Northern Electric and Manufacturing Company, it was one of Canada’s oldest technology companies. Nortel expanded rapidly during the dot-com boom (1997–2001), purchasing many Internet technology companies in a drive to remain competitive in the expanding information technology (IT) market. At its height in 2000, the company represented over 35 per cent of the value of Toronto’s TSE 300 index. It was the ninth most valuable corporation in the world and employed about 94,000 people worldwide at its peak. But Nortel soon entered an extended and painful period of corporate downsizing, and in 2009, the company filed for bankruptcy protection in the largest corporate failure in Canadian history. Shareholders, employees and pensioners suffered losses as a result. Company executives, however, were paid a total US$190 million in retention bonuses between 2009 and 2016. Nortel sold off its assets for a total US$7.3 billion. Those assets were scheduled to be distributed to Nortel’s bondholders, suppliers and former employees in 2017.

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Oil Sands

The Canadian oil sands (or tar sands) are a large area of petroleum extraction from bitumen, located primarily along the Athabasca River with its centre of activity close to Fort McMurray in Alberta, approximately 400 km northeast of the provincial capital, Edmonton. Increased global energy demand, high petroleum dependency and geopolitical conflict in key oil producing regions has driven the exploration of unconventional oil sources since the 1970s which, paired with advances in the field of petroleum engineering, has continued to make bitumen extraction economically profitable at a time of rising oil prices. Oil sands are called “unconventional” oil because the extraction process is more difficult than extracting from liquid (“conventional”) oil reserves, causing higher costs of production and increased environmental concerns.

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On to Ottawa Trek

In 1935, residents of federal Unemployment Relief Camps in British Columbia went on strike and traveled by train and truck to Vancouver, Regina and Ottawa to protest poor conditions in the Depression-era camps.

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Pay Television

Although undertaken experimentally in Etobicoke, Ontario, between 1960 and 1965, pay television as a major venture was licensed only in March 1982, after a decade of debate.

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Petroleum

Since its first commercial exploitation in the 1850s, petroleum has become the major energy source of Canada and the industrial world.

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Small Presses

Traditionally the difference between small press publishers and trade publishers has been one of scale, purpose and ideology. Trade publishers are entrepreneurs with large operations, comprising many departments and geared to market books that will be profitable.

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Protectionism

Protectionism refers to government policies that shield domestic production (and producers) from foreign competition.

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Quill & Quire

Quill & Quire is a magazine of the Canadian book trade. It is read chiefly by publishers, booksellers, librarians, writers and educators. Founded by the Seccombe family in 1935, it was a monthly magazine serving stationers and booksellers.

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Québec Shoe Workers' Strike

The Québec Shoe Workers' Strike, properly a lockout, 27 October-10 December 1900, was the first direct intervention in a labour conflict by Québec Catholic clergy and the first step toward the creation of Catholic unions (see CONFEDERATION OF NATIONAL TRADE UNIONS).