After the failed Rebellion of 1837 in Upper Canada, its leader, William Lyon Mackenzie, retreated to Navy Island, in the Niagara River, accompanied by some 200 followers. The Caroline, an American ship based at Fort Schlosser in New York State, was chartered to bring supplies to the rebels. On 29 December 1837, a force of the Upper Canada militia led by Commander Andrew Drew of the Royal Navy found the Caroline moored at Schlosser. In the quick skirmish that followed, an American was killed. The Caroline, set on fire and adrift, capsized before reaching the falls and sank. The incident aggravated the already tense relationship between the United Kingdom and the United States.
Trent Affair, the most serious diplomatic crisis between Britain and the US federal government during the AMERICAN CIVIL WAR.
Canada and the War in Afghanistan
The war in Afghanistan (2001–14) was Canada’s longest war and its first significant combat engagement since the Korean War (1950–53). After the 2001 terror attacks on the United States, Canada joined an international coalition to destroy the al-Qaeda terrorist network and the Taliban regime that sheltered it in Afghanistan (see 9/11 and Canada). More than 40,000 Canadian Armed Forces members served in the 12-year campaign. The war killed 165 Canadians — 158 soldiers and 7 civilians. Although the Taliban were removed from power and the al-Qaeda network was disrupted, Canada and its allies failed to destroy either group, or to secure and stabilize Afghanistan.
Reid Arrested After Bank Robbery
Over the telephone, Susan Musgrave, one of British Columbia's most celebrated poets, is weeping and talking ceaselessly at the same time, trying to figure out how things could have taken such a terrible turn.
Rwandan Genocide Aftermath
Through the window of a Huey helicopter whisking above the countryside at 700 feet, the southern Rwandan countryside does not look like a hellish killing ground. The camel-hump hills are variations on green, groomed for the planting season that is just beginning.
Martin's Agenda Full of Risks
TESTIFYING AT THE SPONSORSHIP inquiry last week was billed as an unwelcome chore for Paul MARTIN. There was the indignity of being the first sitting prime minister since Sir John A.
Crow's Nest Pass Agreement
In the 1890s, when rich mineral deposits were discovered in the Kootenay region of southern BC, American developers began to move into the region and extend rail lines northward from their transcontinentals.
Rush-Bagot Agreement, finalized Apr 1817. US Secretary of State James Monroe proposed to British Foreign Secretary Lord Castlereagh in 1816 that the 2 countries should agree to limit naval armaments to one ship each, on Lakes Ontario and Champlain, and 2 each on the Upper Lakes.
The Great War in the Air
“The aeroplane is an invention of the devil, and will never play any part in such a serious business as the defence of the nation,” thundered Canada’s Minister of Militia and Defence, Sam Hughes, at the start of the First World War.
St Albans Raid
St Albans Raid, one of several incidents heightening tensions between Great Britain and the US during the AMERICAN CIVIL WAR. On 19 Oct 1864 a party of Confederate agents based in Canada raided the town of St Albans, Vt.
Alberta and Confederation
Alberta joined Confederation along with Saskatchewan in 1905, when the two new provinces were created out of a section of the Northwest Territories.
Manning's United Alternative
Preston Mannings patience is wearing thin. Six months after the Reform leader launched his bid to unite his party with Conservatives - and anyone else willing to take on the Liberals - he is getting tired of hearing about all the problems he faces in forging such a coalition.
Gore Creek Skeleton, an Early Human in North America
Forensic analysis of the skeleton revealed that it belonged to a man in his twenties or early thirties.
The First Thanksgiving in North America
It has become common knowledge that the first Thanksgiving in North America was held by Sir Martin Frobisher and his crew in Nunavut in 1578. There are those — mainly Americans upset by the thought of having their holiday co-opted — who argue that it wasn't a “real” Thanksgiving. I would counter that Frobisher had reason to give thanks, and that giving thanks was an important aspect of Elizabethan society, so it would have been a natural thing for him and his men to do.
The First Christmas Tree in North America
On December 25, 1943, the acrid smell of cordite hung over the rubble barricades of Ortona, Italy, where Canadians and Germans were engaged in grim hand-to-hand combat.
Spanish-American War, the 1898 conflict between the US and Spain, during which the US removed Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines from Spain, annexing the last 3.
British American Land Company
British American Land Company, chartered 20 March 1834 and promoted by John Galt, Canada Company founder; Edward Ellice, Lower Canada's largest absentee landowner; and others. It purchased 343 995 ha of crown land in the Eastern Townships (Qué) for £120 000.
The Name Debate: An Introduction
Amid the widening debate about the removal of the names and statues of controversial, colonial-era figures from public places, The Canadian Encyclopedia asked three writers to offer their opinions on the subject. Here, Anthony Wilson-Smith, the Encyclopedia's publisher, introduces the debate.
Montreal Consort of Ancient Instruments
Montreal Consort of Ancient Instruments. Early-music ensemble, founded by Otto Joachim in 1958, which specialized in the performance of medieval, renaissance, and baroque repertoire.