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Editorial

The 1704 Raid on Deerfield

On the morning of February 29, 1704, a French and First Nations army fell upon the sleeping frontier village of Deerfield, Massachusetts. The raiders had spent a fireless winter night camped across the Deerfield River, —cold, hungry and tired.

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Nova Scotia 1714-84

Confirmed as British by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, the peninsula of Nova Scotia was neglected until 1749 - a period of "phantom rule" and "counterfeit suzerainty.

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Architectural History: 1759-1867

At least until the 1830s, and even later in some regions, the architecture of the English regime was polarized between Georgian forms, symbolizing British imperial order, and the various regional tendencies, already established or in the process of formation throughout the territory.

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Capitulation of Montréal 1760

The capitulation of Montréal to the British on 8 September 1760 effectively completed Britain’s conquest of New France in the Seven Years' War (the war itself would continue until 1763, at which point the French colony formally became a British possession).

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Treaty of Oswegatchie (1760)

In February 1760 delegates of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) réductions (reserves) of Oswegatchie, Kanesatake and Kahnawake sought assurances for the "22 Nations in the French interest" that the Six Nations would not take up arms against them in the final battles of the Seven Years' War.

Editorial

The British Conquest of 1760

It is well known that the English victory on the Plains of Abraham in September 1759 placed the city of Québec under British rule, and that Montréal capitulated the following year. A temporary military regime was set up pending the outcome of negotiations between the great opposing European powers.

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Treaty of Paris 1763

The Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years’ War between France, Britain and Spain. It marked the end of that phase of European conflict in North America, and created the basis for the modern country of Canada.

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Royal Proclamation of 1763

The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued by King George III on 7 October 1763. It established the basis for governing the North American territories surrendered by France to Britain in the Treaty of Paris, 1763, following the Seven Years’ War. It introduced policies meant to assimilate the French population to British rule. These policies ultimately failed and were replaced by the Quebec Act of 1774 (see also The Conquest of New France). The Royal Proclamation also set the constitutional structure for the negotiation of treaties with the Indigenous inhabitants of large sections of Canada. It is referenced in section 25 of the Constitution Act, 1982. As such, it has been labelled an “Indian Magna Carta” or an “Indian Bill of Rights.” The Proclamation also contributed to the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War in 1775. The Proclamation legally defined the North American interior west of the Appalachian Mountains as a vast Indigenous reserve. This angered people in the Thirteen Colonies who desired western expansion.

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Bill 178

In December 1988 the Liberal government of Québec introduced Bill 178, an Act to amend Bill 101, Charte de la langue française.